Welcome to the class notes serving the Notre Dame class of 1968.

Classmates and friends of the Notre Dame Class of 1968,

Timeliness was the original appeal of a blog for our class notes, photos and messages: instead of waiting three months or so for news, we modern fellows and our friends could avail ourselves of the Internet for timely communication.  Since then, a second reason for the blog has come along: the notes submitted to the print magazine undergo a scrubbing for length and, apparently, for consistency with the “Notre Dame brand.”  But, as far as we are concerned, we are the Great ’68 and we are the Notre Dame brand.  So here we have a place for the kinds of interests and opinions we share freely when we are together.

Using the file directory at the right, you can navigate to pages set aside for various kinds of news: chances to get together (Rendezvous notes), game discusssions, how to find other Notre Dame alumni, several recent columns written about our class for Notre Dame magazine, photos and so on.  Perhaps some of you who are good at the technique will prepare a Podcast or a short video at one of the tailgate parties: let people give their names and their messages.  We can post the Podcasts and videos on our blog.

We can use the blog to leave comments, too.  In order to add your comment, you will have to register.  If you want to post photographs or new articles, send me your username at tfigel@lake-effect.com and I will take care of the blog administration needed.  You can also email me the note or the photo with instructions and I will post the material for you.

If you attend a game, look for the Class of 1968 flag.  There, between the stadium and Legends (once the Senior Bar), you will find many of your friends.


Death of Michael L. Philbin April 24, 2015


Born March 10, 1946, Akron, Ohio, passed away April 24, 2015 in Nashville, TN.

He graduated from Father Ryan High School in 1964, received his B.A. degree from Notre Dame University in 1968, and his J.D. degree from Vanderbilt University Law School in 1971.

He practiced law in Nashville with the firm of Taylor, Philbin, Pigue, Marchetti & Bennett and its predecessors from 1971 to 1998. From 1998 until his death Mike was in the solo practice of law as Michael J. Philbin, P.C. and was owner and President of Lawyer’s Escrow Service, Inc. in the Green Hills area of Nashville.


Mike was a skillful and accomplished civil trial lawyer, and was one of the pre-imminent real estate lawyers in Nashville. He was widely known and respected in the Nashville and Middle Tennessee legal community as a lawyer of the highest integrity. He was a member of the American, Tennessee and Nashville Bar Associations. He served as President of the Young Members Section of the Nashville Bar Association (1975-1976), on the Board of Directors of the Nashville Bar Association (1979-1981), as a member and President (1993-1994) of the Tennessee Defense Lawyers Association (1974 to present), as a member of International Association of Defense Counsel (1985 to present), and of the Middle Tennessee Title Agents Association. He was admitted to practice in all State Courts of TN, Federal District Court for the Middle District of Tennessee and the Sixth Circuit U. S. Court of Appeals.

Mike was a member of Christ the King Catholic Church. He gave tirelessly of his time, energy and talents to many charitable causes, including Catholic Charities of Tennessee, Inc., St. Mary Villa, Inc., Villa Maria Manor, Inc., and St. Henry Property Development Corp. He served on the Board of Trustees for each of above organizations from 1978-1998 and during this period served intermittently in all officer positions including President. He was also an active member of Knights of Columbus from 1975 to present.

He was a passionate and accomplished golfer and a member of Richland Country Club since 1971.

Mike was known, admired, respected and loved by a wide circle of friends across the United States for his graciousness, genial nature, kindness, generosity, and sense of honor and integrity. His family and friends will always remember him for his quick wit, although sometimes it was not so “quick” as he spun a long yarn as no one else could. It was often funnier to watch Mike laughing at his own joke than the punch line was. He will be remembered for his signature dish of the best mashed potatoes ever. Mike had a gift of making each person in his presence feel special and everyone close to him knew that if he was needed, Mike would be there by plane, train or any available means to hold hands and share troubles. Heaven has gained a special soul, but this world has lost a great man.

Mike was preceded in death by his parents, Thomas Stephen Philbin and Ruth Cowen Philbin, and his sister Susan Philbin Walsh. He is survived by his wife, N. Shannon McKinnon Philbin, his son, Robert Jeffrey Philbin and his wife Bethany of Nashville, his daughter, Katherine Shannon Philbin Butler and her husband John of Norfolk, VA, three grandchildren who were the light of his life, Elizabeth McKinnon (Lily) Philbin, Isabella Rutherford (Ella Ford) Philbin and Charlotte McKinnon Butler, his brother Jeffrey Stephen Philbin and his wife Marge, of Albuquerque NM, his brother-in-law, James F. Walsh, of Nashville, and a host of nieces and nephews.

Pallbearers are Denny Bennett, Ted Faust, Phil Hill, Dan Loftus, Jim Mondelli, Mike Mondelli, Ritchie Pigue, and Nixon Pressley. Honorary pallbearers are the Father Ryan Class of 1964, and Chris, David, Rob and Tim – the Crazy Crew.

Services are all at Christ the King Catholic Church, 3001 Belmont Boulevard, Nashville, TN; visitation from 5pm-7pm on Monday, April 27th in the parish hall, and 10am-11am in the church followed by Mass of Resurrection at 11am Tuesday, April 28th.

The family asks that in lieu of flowers donations be made to the Father Ryan Athletic Fund 700 Norwood Drive, Nashville, TN 37204 or Special Olympics Tennessee P.O. Box 292549 Nashville, TN 37229-2549.

Death of Lenny Joyce July 1, 2014


JOYCE, Leonard Albert Died July 1, 2014, aged 68 in Oak Park, IL. Leonard was born October 31, 1945 in South Boston, MA., the son of the late Coleman V. Joyce and the late Eleanore Mary (nee Whelan) Joyce. Leonard was a 1963 graduate of Boston College H. S. where he played on the football team. He was a 1968 graduate of Notre Dame University where he was a student leader and political activist. He later earned a master’s degree and worked towards a PhD. After college, Leonard lived in San Francisco, Chicago and for the past thirty-three years in Oak Park, IL. Leonard leaves his wife of forty years Joyce Wesolowski and his sons Rory Coleman Joyce and daughter-in-law Jessica Leriger and Dylan Thomas Joyce, his brother Kevin Coleman Joyce and sister-in-law Kate Shore, brother and sister-in-law Joseph and Lydia Wesolowski and nephews and a niece. Leonard was a Marxist-Leninist, an active trade unionist and member of Local 308 Amalgamated Transit Workers Union AFL-CIO. Leonard was an early member of Students for a Democratic Society. He was a draft resister to the war in Viet Nam. He was active in the Civil Rights and Peace Movements and was active in Movements for a United, Socialist Ireland. Leonard was a lifelong internationalist and activist in the struggles for economic justice and equality for the poor, oppressed and the working class of the world. Leonard was a strong supporter of Cuba and a past officer of the Ernest Hemingway Society of Oak Park. He twice visited Cuba with the Hemingway Society. Seeing Cuban children play baseball without equipment, Leonard gathered baseball equipment and sent it to Cuba via Pastors for Peace. On his second trip to Cuba, Leonard was delighted to see Cuban children playing baseball wearing Oak Park tee-shirts with the equipment he helped send. He won the Hemingway Look A Like contest several times. At Leonard‘s request, he was cremated without ceremony. At his request his ashes were divided and were spread in Galway Bay and several other locations in Ireland. His remaining ashes will be spread in Lake Michigan and in the ocean off South Boston. Donations in Leonard‘s memory may be sent to: Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, 799 Broadway, Suite 341, NYC, NY 10003-6827. “Mo ghra tu, Leonard mo Dearthair, mo Chara agus mo Comradai. Codladh slan agus Siochain.” (“I love you, Leonard my Brother, my Friend and my comrade. Sleep well and Peace.”

Don Hynes re: April 2015 guest teaching of Lou McKenzie classes

I  spent a few days at Notre Dame recently as Louis MacKenzie's guest in
a freshmen creative arts and language seminar. Louis chose a few of
my poems for two classes of discussion and analysis. I probably
learned as much as the students about this curious author and his way
of seeing and writing about the world.

When I visit Notre Dame I am always changed. As Tom Figel said, who was so
kind to drive all the way from Chicago and then buy me lunch(!), ND
is like catholic microsoft. Everywhere you look the "statement"
is on message, on brand. The infrastructure is three times bigger
than our student days with almost a billion dollars more of new
construction underway. But beneath the veneer, the sales and
marketing, something alive and on mission continues, finding its way
past the leprecauns and preaching about "excellence."  
Whatever that "something" is, I found it echoing in me, calling me
to shift and adjust to a deeper vein. Louis is a teacher in the
O'Malley tradition, inspiring the students, challenging them to go
further, empowering their critical thinking. I was amazed at how
young the students are. If I could go back I'd remind my younger self
of that fact! 
I thought you might all enjoy this dispatch. It was a very good
experience, with Louis and his good wife JoAnn, with whatever lives
within the fabric of that campus that still touches and changes me.
They may be flocking to the business school, the football stadium
becoming a megalith, but I bought the tee shirt and hope I can visit
again soon and talk more poetry!
Here's one of the poems we discussed. 
Holy Dark 
Clear sky at dawn
with a waxing moon,
the stark branches
of winter emptying,
letting go of the green
for descent
into the holy dark,
releasing faith
and all its tribunals
for blessed peace
as seeds soften
in the wet ground
awaiting the fire
of our surrender.
You might ask yourself how you discuss "surrender" with
eighteen year olds. That's what I mean about Louis being a teacher.

Obituary: Genevieve Ptak, mother of Bob Ptak

Genevieve Ptak

1918 – 2015

Genevieve Ptak (nee Kowalczyk), age 96, a resident of Naperville, IL, former, longtime resident of Cicero, IL, passed away Wednesday, April 15, 2015 at Alden Estates of Naperville, IL. She was born December 9, 1918 in Sterling, MI. Beloved wife of the late Edwin A. Ptak, Sr., whom she married January 6, 1945 and who preceded her in death October 14, 1979, beloved mother of Robert (Donna) Ptak, Susan (Thomas) Love, Edwin Jr. (Isabel) Ptak and Barbara (Bradley) Kosic, cherished grandmother of Michelle (Patrick) O’Connor, Bryan (Michelle) Ptak and Keith (Megan) Ptak; Kathleen Love and Michael Love; Christopher Ptak, Daniel (Jennifer) Ptak, Patrick Ptak and Rachel (John) McCormack; Robert (Torrie) Kosic, James Kosic and Kristin Kosic, great-grandmother of twelve, devoted daughter of the late Walter and Rose Kowalczyk, fond aunt, great-aunt and friend to many. Visitation Monday, April 20, 10:00-11:00 AM at St. Margaret Mary Catholic Church, 1450 Green Trails Dr., Naperville. A Mass of Christian Burial will follow Monday, 11:00 AM in the church. Entombment: Resurrection Cemetery, Justice, IL. Arrangements by Friedrich-Jones Funeral Home & Cremation Services, Naperville. For more information, please call 630-355-0213 or visit www.friedrich-jones.com

Published in a Chicago Tribune Media Group Publication on Apr. 17, 2015

Class notes submitted February 1, 2015

And soon, The Grateful Dead

In early December, Jay Schwartz‘s modest, ever-encouraging father Joseph A. Schwartz, Jr. died in Maryland at the age of 93. As sad things often do, Mr. Schwartz’s funeral created a time to see and appreciate other friends while spending time with the children, grandchildren, cousins and friends of a man whose kindness and good advice flavored decades of Notre Dame experience. In fact, Jay’s eulogy centered on the impact of a Notre Dame football game played when Mr. Schwartz was 14. Losing to Ohio State as the end of the game loomed, Notre Dame came to life with a number of scores and finished as the victor. His father, Jay said, mentioned that game when Mr. Schwartz explained why Notre Dame should be Jay’s school. “Dad, it’s only a football game,” Jay said. “No, it’s not!” his father responded. “Those are people who don’t quit, don’t give up. Those are the kind of people you should be around.”
Our class is well-represented in the DC area with generous people. John McCoy, also present along with Pat Collins and Emily at Mr. Schwartz’s funeral, made me at home in the Annapolis waterfront condo across from the U.S. Naval Academy, all in strolling distance of as much history, coffee and ice cream as a body can absorb. Dennis Reeder and Elise, about to leave for granddaughter Kate’s music concert in Minneapolis, made their Alexandria, VA home the first stop. And on the way to Mr. Schwartz’s wake, the route led through Falls Church, VA, where John Schmelzer has his apartment.
John’s phone was out of order and, since the building’s directory is phone number-based, John was nearby but not reachable at first. However, like all ND 68 members, John is known to the ladies. Two in the lobby lit up at his name and soon delivered me to John, who lives in a large place that is still not able to encompass the expanse of his Notre Dame delight, his recall of class events, and his far-ranging interests. John is a very frequent correspondent but one whose letters always come marked “Private, not for public”. This means that we all have to wait for revelations that meanwhile remain confidential, whether they pertain to the mystery of Loch Ness, the disappearance of Judge Crater or the secret formula for Coke.

Another DC visit was with Mike Baroody and Muff, no doubt the liveliest great-grandparents (recently made) in our class. At an Alexandria, VA restaurant close to the parish school he once attended, Mike spoke of a time a restaurant proprietor made a black classmate leave. Within the span of our time, Mike observed, that boy’s color would be no barrier to the White House, just across the Potomac.
Meanwhile, back in Chicago, December remained busy. Bryan Dunigan filled his Oak Park house with the annual Christmas party attended by Dave Kabat, Dennis Toolan and Mary Lou, Tom Moore and Kathy, Ted Nugent, Matt Walsh, (Chicago cuz) Tom McKenna and Mary Pat, and Tom Gibbs and Sheila. Class President Tom Weyer and Mary were away but in touch. During January, Tom sent news that Rocky Bleier‘s mother, who had managed the bookkeeping for her son-in-law’s multi-million construction company till age 85 in California, died at age 92.
John Walsh and Dia, whose Evanston home is always at the center of class news and gatherings, spent a December Saturday night with John Flemming, in Chicago for exhibition of his leather sculpture and designs at a show. John learned that Brien Murphy‘s brother Turk died recently. Several years ahead of us, always much admired by Brien, Turk Murphy was a solid, friendly rugby giant living some of the time near a campus lake in his station wagon. John and Dia are now at the center of plans that began to form while the Walshes and other friends reflected on the two-year anniversary of Eddie Kurtz‘s death: a July, 2015 meeting in Chicago for the reunion of the Grateful Dead.
Jim O’Rourke, another center of correspondence, wrote after hearing from these: Tom Scully is now “somewhat” retired from the dialysis medical equipment industry, though he continues to consult. He and wife Debbie spend their winters in Florida and summers in Chicago. Tom Warner, retired as CEO of Del Monte Foods International, still hopes to remain involved as an executive in the food business. He and wife Mary live in Shaver Lake, California, though life occasionally takes them to London; Phuket, Thailand; Australia; or an olive farm they own in Tuscany. Tom and Mary generously donated a week’s stay in their Italian Villa near Florence as an auction prize for the Fischoff National Chamber Music Association at Notre Dame. (Pam O’Rourke is the Association’s Director of Education.) Pam and I are hoping to join them in Italy, perhaps later this year, The other stalwart I see around campus regularly is Rich Linting (of Linting Brown Ltd., Laguna Beach). He spends a week on campus every spring and again in the fall just before mid-semester break to teach an intensive, deep drive course on funding new ventures.
Please send news to: Tom Figel, 1054 West North Shore, Apt. 3-E, Chicago, IL 60626, tel. (office) 312-223-9536, tfigel@lake-effect.com.

Class notes submitted Oct. 31, 2014


Thank you to Jim Hutchinson, Larry “Monk” Forness, Tom McKenna (Indiana), Jim O’Rourke, John McCoy, Tom Fitzharris and Bob Smith for the contributions to “We’re Pumped!” and the four items following it.  The items report the death of classmate Tom Connolly, the existence of ND grads who found South Bend weather milder than the weather at home, some photos documenting how little we have changed since our 25th reunion, the attention Tom Fitzharris is receiving for his paintings, and the news of some Bob Smith friends.

And thank you to all of you for being good Notre Dame subjects, in all the senses of that.

Mike Helmer’s popular contribution from the West Coast last time around has no immediate successor: after a night of revelry following his San Francisco Giants’ World Series success, Mike is recuperating from the strain of tipping over his neighbors’ cars. Since Mike and Elizabeth live in the Napa region, the cars are no easy matter: mostly Bentleys and Teslas, unlike the compacts known to most of us practical liberal arts majors. Fortunately, Forrest Hainline and John O’Connor had their fleets secured during the time of Mike’s joyous rampage.

Maybe southern California’s mound of muscle, Crossfit trainer Mike Burgener, can help Mike get in shape for any repeat of the Giants’ season. Larry “Monk” Forness, far along in his recovery from a heart repair, wrote from Granger, IN that Mike Burgener was one of the Father Bernard Lange‘s Gym group assembled for the Michigan weekend: “We had a great time at the Fr. Lange Weight Room in the Rockne Memorial Bldg. Big Steve Quinn was one of the better lifters. I couldn’t participate because of my recent surgery. Mad Dog (Burgener) looked so buffed that he didn’t lift, but instead was the judge. After the lifting, we went out into the parking lot and Kent “Iron Man” Durso (’67) had brought up an arm wrestling table stand, driven all the way from his farm, outside Nashville, TN. Big Steve Quinn got into a match with Dr. Jed Ervin, MD (’70) and tore Jed’s biceps tendon. Thankfully, it won’t require surgery. Iron Man got into it and dislocated his right shoulder. The only saving grace was that there were two bottles of booze — a 150-dollar bottle of Irish Whiskey (which we drained in toasts to Fr. Lange) and a 120-dollar bottle of scotch (that we drained to our own stupidity).”

During the Stanford weekend, Monk and Florida’s Jim Smithberger turned to heavy intellectual lifting when they sat in on a class in Classical and Scientific Genetics, an interest of Jim’s grandson Clayton, who is a Notre Dame prospect.

Also around for Michigan was Jim Hutchinson, who filed this mysterious report: “Jerry Murray, Bob Kubiak and I were part of the Rochester, NY crew that rented a house in Mishawaka. The weekend even included some non-pc insight from Mike Ryan re: the football player scandal. Only rough patch was a misunderstanding (now known as Towelgate) which resulted in Jerry M. shouting at everyone, ‘We are not supposed to use the towels, stand out on the lawn naked, and drip dry’.”

Here come the Irish. . . to the Purdue tailgate hosted by Tom McKenna and Mike Browning.

Here come the Irish. . . to the Purdue tailgate hosted by Tom McKenna and Mike Browning.

On the road - to Purdue game 2014

Feeling the prick of conscience after decades of presence at the tailgates of Class President Tom Weyer and his family, Carmel, IN’s Tom McKenna and Mike Browning organized their own party for the Purdue weekend. Tom reported, with attitude and a photo posted on the blog www.ndclass1968.com: “Beautiful weather, great food, uniforms looked good, rare sighting of Maggie Kernan and Mary Ann O’Toole, two former Governors, our own Joe Kernan and Evan Bayh, kicked Purdue’s ass, sneered at former Governor and current unqualified and incompetent Purdue President, Mitchell Daniels, wasn’t wearing his baseball cap nor riding in his RV. ’68’ attendees: Joe Kernan, Mike Ryan, Tom Gibbs, Gene Cavanaugh brought our class flag, Denny Toolin, Wally Moxham, Michael Browning, Class President Tom Weyer, Mike Wolf and Skip Strzelecki, generous provider of the tee shirts especially made for the game.”

Jim O’Rourke sent word of Thomas M. Connolly‘s death August 26, 2014. After serving as a U.S. Navy pilot, Tom came back to South Bend, where he married Bonnie McHugh, made his career in automotive and aviation industries, and enjoyed a wide circle of friends. Suffering from cancer at the end, Tom was the father of two sons and grandfather of four. Please keep him and Bonnie in your prayers.

Pals of John Schmelzer can write him at 200 North Maple Avenue, Apt. 611, Falls Church, VA 22046-4328. Though suffering from some health issues, John is sure to reply with interesting comments. Also, keep Bill Knapp and his wife Mary Clare in your thoughts as Mary Clare deals with some health matters. (In an early November phone call, Bill said that 2013 was a difficult time but, on January 6, 2014, Mary Clare had surgery that put her back in the pink.  The Knapps are good.)

Thanks. – Tom Figel, 1054 West North Shore, Apt. 3-E, Chicago, IL, tfigel@lake-effect.com, tel. (office) 312-223-9536.

Thomas M. Connolly death Aug. 26, 2014

Thomas M. Connolly Aug. 26, 1946 – Sept. 6, 2014 SOUTH BEND – Thomas M. Connolly, 68, passed away peacefully on Saturday, September 6, 2014, at 3:00 PM at Hospice House in South Bend, with his devoted wife of 46 years by his side, after a long and difficult battle with cancer. Tom was born on August 26, 1946, in Chicago, Illinois, the only son of Paul and Ann Connolly. Tom lived all over the Great Lakes region as a child, moving frequently as his father managed various industrial construction projects from Illinois to New York. He came to South Bend to attend Notre Dame in 1964 and graduated with a bachelor of economics in 1968. On July 20, 1968, he married Yvonne (Bonnie) McHugh at Christ the King Church in South Bend. Soon after that, Tom joined the Navy as an officer and was stationed in Pensacola, Florida where he successfully finished flight school to become a Navy fighter pilot and was commissioned Ensign USNR. He was awarded an honorable discharge in 1969 and he and Bonnie moved back to South Bend afterward. Tom’s lifelong love of cars and airplanes guided his long and winding career path. He was truly a jack of all trades working in outside sales in the insurance, trucking, and automotive industries, general manager in the retail industry, and for many years as a telephone system technician. He was a superb mechanic and opened his own automotive parts supply and repair shop, Imported Automotive Supply, in 1977. Many years later, he went back to college to become certified as an aircraft mechanic and had worked at LaPorte Aviation in that capacity until just recently. Tom enjoyed British sports cars and vintage WW II era aircraft, attending airshows and visiting aircraft and auto museums around the country. In his younger years he enjoyed car racing for a time on the SCCA Formula V circuit. He was also an athletic man who enjoyed spending time outdoors. He enjoyed cutting and splitting his own firewood, and at various times throughout his life tried his hand at skiing, surfing, bicycle racing, tae kwon do, fishing, and gardening. Tom was an avid reader for his entire life and could talk for hours on a variety of topics, though he had a particular interest in WW I history, and had done countless hours of genealogical research on his family. More recently, Tom and Bonnie enjoyed traveling to many exotic locales including Alaska, Hawaii, Mexico, Barbados, Greece, Italy and many more places in between. A loving husband as well as a wonderful father and grandfather, Tom’s passing weighs heavy in the hearts of his family. He was also a man who could always be counted on to lend a hand to his friends and will be missed by those many friends he has made over the years. Tom was preceded in death by his mother, Ann in 1972 and his father, Paul in 1979. He is survived by his wife, Bonnie; two sons, Neal (Jillian) Connolly of South Bend and Kevin (Jill) Connolly of Newnan, Georgia; and four grandchildren: Neal and Jillian’s daughters, Scarlet and Violet; and Kevin and Jill’s daughters, Caroline and Elizabeth. The entire Connolly family would like to express their sincere gratitude to Drs. Rafat Ansari and Binh Tran and their entire staff at Michiana Hematology Oncology and also to the Center for Hospice for the care, compassion, and support that they provided for Tom and his family throughout this difficult time. Viewing will be from 2 to 4 and 5 to 8 pm Wednesday, September 10, 2014 in the Kaniewski Funeral Home, 3545 N. Bendix Drive, South Bend, where a Parish Rosary will be prayed at 3:30 pm. A Mass of Christian Burial will be held at 10 am Thursday, September 11, 2014, at St. Stanislaus Kostka Catholic Church Terre Coupee (meet directly at church). Burial will follow at Chapel Hill Memorial Gardens in Osceola. In lieu of flowers, all memorial contributions may be made to the EAA Young Eagles Program www.EAA.org. To send online condolences, please visit www.kaniewski.com.

Old Reunion Photos Discovered by John McCoy

After some back and forth with Class President Tom Weyer, shown in some of the photos, John McCoy identified these as photos of the 1993 reunion, our 25th.


Tom Weyer, Class President, you'll notice, is in these photos.

Tom Weyer, Class President, you’ll notice, is in these photos.

These photos explain why Jay Schwartz and Nancy Carlin Figel, as well as Maureen McAtee and Bill Kelly have never held elective office.  Jay's election to head of the Hall President's Council occurred in years prior.

These photos explain why Jay Schwartz and Nancy Carlin Figel, as well as Maureen McAtee and Bill Kelly, have never held elective office. Jay’s election to head of the Hall President’s Council occurred in years prior.

Notice the four Toms (Condon, McKenna, McCann, McKenna) in the second photo.

Notice the four Toms (Condon, McKenna, McCann, McKenna) in the second photo.